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- Family therapy
Psychotherapy focused on family. The unit of treatment is not one client (despite the fact, he could be the only one physically present), but the system as a complex of all relationships, in which the individual is being participating. Concept of family therapy comes out of the hypothesis that for changing an individual is necessary to change the context in which he is living in. During the process of family therapy there are systemical changes happening, e.g. in structure, communication, sharing of the problem etc. The role of the therapist is important, s/he has to be neutral (alternatively flexible in joining different members or coalitions) and adopting an active and respectfull position. Family therapist creates hypothesis about processes running in family with an identified problematic individual and he is verifying them. He is using different methodological procedures as for e.g. reframing, normalization, sculpting, paradox interventions etc.
The thought of family therapy dates back to fifties next to mental models of psychoanalysis or behaviorism. Its representatives are Minuchin (structural therapy), Haley (strategical therapy), Jackson, Weakland, Watzulawick (communicative therapy), Palazzoli, Boscolo, Prata, Cecchin (systemical therapy). The beginning of the family therapy was strongly affected by cybernetics, theory of systems and epistemology.